News from the National Academies en-us News from the National Academies NAE Elects Treasurer and Four Councillors The National Academy of Engineering has re-elected Martin B. Sherwin, retired vice president of W.R. Grace, to serve a four-year term as the NAE's treasurer. Re-elected to second terms as councillors are Frances S. Ligler, Lampe Distinguished Professor of Biomedical Engineering in the joint department of biomedical engineering at the North Carolina State University College of Engineering and the University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill School of Medicine, and H. Vincent Poor, Michael Henry Strater University Professor at Princeton University. And newly elected councillors are Katharine G. Frase, retired vice president of education business development at International Business Machines Corporation, and Yannis C. Yortsos, dean of the Viterbi School of Engineering at the University of Southern California. All terms begin July 1, 2017. Read More Fri, 21 Apr 2017, 18:00 EDT Report Identifies Grand Challenges for Scientific Community to Better Prepare for Volcanic Eruptions Despite broad understanding of volcanoes, our ability to predict the timing, duration, type, size, and consequences of volcanic eruptions is limited, says a new report by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. To improve eruption forecasting and warnings to save lives, the report identifies research priorities for better monitoring of volcanic eruptions and three grand challenges facing the volcano science community. Read More Wed, 19 apr 2017 11:00 EDT The Kavli Foundation Gives $10.5 Million to the National Academy of Sciences to Establish Fred Kavli Endowment Fund; NAS Auditorium to Be Renamed in Kavli's Honor The National Academy of Sciences announced today that it has received a $10.5 million gift from The Kavli Foundation to establish the Fred Kavli Endowment Fund, which honors the late physicist, entrepreneur, innovator, business leader, and philanthropist. To recognize Kavli's generous and unwavering support for science, the auditorium of the historic National Academy of Sciences building will be renamed the Fred Kavli Auditorium. A portrait of Fred Kavli and a commemorative plaque will be unveiled at the NAS annual meeting, which will take place April 29-May 2. Mon, 17 apr 2017 11:00 EDT Integrating Clinical Research Into Epidemic Response Mobilization of a rapid and robust clinical research program to combat the next infectious disease epidemic will depend on strengthening capacity in low-income countries for response and research, engaging people living in affected communities, and conducting safety trials before an epidemic, says a new report from the National Academies. Read More Tue, 12 apr 2017 11:00 EDT Actions Needed to Protect Integrity in Research Stakeholders in the scientific research enterprise -- researchers, institutions, publishers, funders, scientific societies, and federal agencies -- should improve their practices and policies to respond to threats to the integrity of research, says a new report from the National Academies. Actions are needed to ensure the availability of data necessary for reproducing research, clarify authorship standards, protect whistleblowers, and make sure that negative as well as positive research findings are reported, among other steps. The report also recommends the establishment of an independent, nonprofit advisory board to support ongoing efforts to strengthen research integrity. Read More TUE, 11 APR 2017 14:00 EDT U.S. Could Be Rid of Hepatitis B and C as Public Health Problems A new report from the National Academies presents a strategy to eliminate hepatitis B and C as serious public health problems -- diseases that kill more than 20,000 people every year in the U.S. -- and prevent nearly 90,000 deaths by 2030. Read More Tue, 28 Mar 2017 11:00 EDT New Report Finds EPA's Controlled Human Exposure Studies of Air Pollution Are Warranted The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency carries out experiments in which volunteer participants agree to be intentionally exposed by inhalation to specific pollutants at restricted concentrations over short periods to obtain important information about the effects of outdoor air pollution on human health. A new report by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine finds these studies are warranted and recommends that they continue under two conditions: when they provide additional knowledge that informs policy decisions and regulation of pollutants that cannot be obtained by other means, and when it is reasonably predictable that the risks for study participants will not exceed biomarker or physiologic responses that are of short duration and reversible. Read More Tue, 28 Mar 2017 11:00 EDT New Guidebook for Educators Outlines Ways to Better Align Student Assessments With New Science Standards A new book from the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine outlines how educators can develop and adapt student assessments for the classroom that reflect the approach to learning and teaching science described in the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) and similar standards, which stress the integration of knowledge of science with scientific and engineering practices. Mon, 27 Mar 2017 11:00 EDT Decision Framework for DOD Regarding Genetic Tests in Clinical Care Advances in genetics and genomics are transforming medical practice, resulting in the dramatic growth of genetic testing, which includes testing for inherited cancer syndromes, predictive testing of newborns for evidence of treatable diseases, and prenatal testing to detect abnormalities in the genes or chromosomes of a fetus. Given the rapid pace in the development of genetic tests and new testing technologies &ndash; both laboratory developed tests and those marketed directly to the consumer &ndash; and the lack of federal regulation governing genetic tests, the U.S. Department of Defense Office of Health Affairs asked the National Academies to recommend a framework for DOD decision making regarding the use of genetic tests in clinical care. A new report lays out the decision framework. Mon, 27 Mar 2017 11:00 EDT G20 Science Academies Issue Statement on Global Health At the Science20 Dialogue Forum held today at the German National Academy of Sciences Leopoldina, a statement on improving global health was handed to German Chancellor Angela Merkel by representatives of the G20 science academies. The statement recommends actions to combat communicable and non-communicable diseases, which endanger individual well-being and threaten the global economy. It is intended to inform discussions during the G20 Summit, which will be held in July in Hamburg, Germany. Wed, 22 Mar 2017 11:00 EDT Vital Directions to Improve Nation's Health System The National Academy of Medicine today released a new publication that provides a succinct blueprint to address challenges to Americans' health and health care that span beyond debates over insurance coverage. The paper is part of the NAM's Vital Directions for Health and Health Care Initiative, which conducted a comprehensive national health and health care assessment over the past 18 months. Written by the initiative's bipartisan steering committee, the publication presents a streamlined framework of eight policy directions, consisting of four priority actions and four essential infrastructure needs. Read More Tue, 21 Mar 2017 02:00 EDT New Report Outlines Research Agenda to Address Impact of Technology on Workforce Federal agencies or other organizations responsible for sponsoring research or collecting data on technology and the workforce should establish a multidisciplinary research program that addresses unanswered questions related to the impact of changing technology on the nature of work and U.S. national economy, says a new report by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. Read more Thu, 16 Mar 2017 12:00 EDT Two $30,000 Grainger Foundation Frontiers of Engineering Grants Awarded Two Grainger Foundation Frontiers of Engineering Grants of $30,000 each have been awarded to attendees of the National Academy of Engineering's 2016 U.S. Frontiers of Engineering Symposium. Amin Karbasi (Yale University) and Amit Surana (United Technologies Research Center) have received a Grainger Grant to &quot;develop a unified approach for saliency detection in heterogeneous temporal data.&quot; The second Grainger Grant has been awarded to Marco Pavone (Stanford University) and Julian Rimoli (Georgia Institute of Technology) for research of &quot;the development of tensegrity damping strategies for the exploration of low-gravity planetary bodies, e.g., asteroids and small moons.&quot; Wed, 15 Mar 2017 11:00 EDT New Review of the Draft Climate Science Special Report (CSSR)<br /> The U.S. Global Change Research Program asked the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to review a draft of the Climate Science Special Report (CSSR) &ndash; a technical document intended to provide an updated, detailed analysis of how climate is changing across the U.S., and to serve as a technical input to the Fourth National Climate Assessment. A new National Academies report concludes that the draft CSSR is timely, accurate, and well-written, representing the breadth of available literature relating to the current state of the science. Tue, 14 Mar 2017 11:00 EDT The Evidence on Climate Change Since issuing its first report on climate change in the 1980s, the National Academies have been on the forefront of ensuring that policymakers and the public have access to the best available science on the issue. For example, a joint publication released in 2014 by the U.S. National Academy of Sciences and the Royal Society -- the national science academy of the U.K. -- explains the clear evidence that humans are causing the climate to change, mainly as a result of the burning of fossil fuels and increased concentrations of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases.&nbsp;Click here for other Academies reports on climate change Thu, 09 Mar 2017 15:45 EST Federal Regulatory Agencies Need to Prepare for Greater Quantity and Range of Biotechnology Products A profusion of biotechnology products is expected over the next five to 10 years, and the number and diversity of new products has the potential to overwhelm the U.S. regulatory system, says a new report from the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Food and Drug Administration, U.S. Department of Agriculture, and other agencies involved in regulating biotechnology products should increase their scientific capabilities, tools, and expertise in key areas of expected growth, said the committee that conducted the study and wrote the report. Read More | Opening Remarks at Public Briefing Thu, 09 Mar 2017 11:00:00 EST Statement Regarding PLOS ONE Article on Academies' Study of Genetically Engineered Crops The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine's Committee on Genetically Engineered Crops: Past Experiences and Future Prospects authored an almost 600-page landmark report, released in May 2016. Read a statement issued by the Academies regarding a PLOS ONE article that discusses the report and conflict of interest. Wed, 01 Mar 2017 03:00:00 EST President Trump Cites Report on Immigration In President Trump&rsquo;s address to Congress, he cited a National Academies report on the economic consequences of immigration. The report found that the long-term impact of immigration on the wages and employment of native-born workers overall is very small, and that any negative impacts are most likely to be found for prior immigrants or native-born high school dropouts. First-generation immigrants are more costly to governments than are the native-born, but the second generation are among the strongest fiscal and economic contributors in the U.S. The report concludes that immigration has an overall positive impact on long-run economic growth in the U.S. Another National Academies report found that immigrants and their descendants integrate into American society over time, for example, in the areas of educational attainment, occupations, and health. Wed, 01 Mar 2017 11:30:00 EST Children and Youth Learning English Require Better Support for Academic Success; New Report Calls for Improvements to Instruction and Training for Their Care and Education Providers Despite their potential, many English learners (ELs) -- who account for more than 9 percent of K-12 enrollment in the U.S. -- lag behind their English-speaking monolingual peers in educational achievement, in part because schools do not provide adequate instruction and social-emotional support to acquire English proficiency or access to academic subjects at the appropriate grade level, says a new report from the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. Moreover, early care and education providers, educational administrators, and teachers are not given appropriate training to foster desired educational outcomes for children and youth learning English. Read More&nbsp; Tue, 28 Feb 2017 11:00:00 EST Assessment of VA's Airborne Hazards and Open Burn Pit Registry Inherent features of registries that rely on voluntary participation and self-reported information make them fundamentally unsuitable for determining whether emissions from military burn pits in Iraq, Afghanistan, and other locations caused health problems in service members who were exposed to them, says a new congressionally mandated National Academies report. While the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs' Airborne Hazards and Open Burn Pit Registry provides a forum for collecting and recording information on those who choose to participate, a more rigorous and appropriate approach is needed, such as a well-designed epidemiologic study. The report also says data from the burn pit registry could be repurposed, including to alert health care providers about participants' concerns. Read More Tue, 28 Feb 2017 11:00:00 EST Examining Undergraduate Research Experiences for STEM Students The call for expanding undergraduates' access to research experiences in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) raises questions about their use and potential to increase students' interest and persistence in these disciplines. A new report from the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine examines the evidence on undergraduate research experiences (UREs) and recommends more well-designed research to gain a deeper understanding of how these experiences affect different students and to examine the aspects of UREs that are most beneficial. Read More Thu, 23 Feb 2017 11:00:00 EST New Report Details Accomplishments of U.S. Global Change Research Program The U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) has made significant accomplishments to advance the science of global environmental change and improve the understanding of its impact on society through activities such as developing Earth-observing systems, improving Earth-system modeling capabilities, and advancing understanding of carbon-cycle processes, says a new report from the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. Going forward, the program should continue to build its knowledge base for informing decision makers and the public about rising global challenges, the report recommends. Tue, 21 Feb 2017 11:00:00 EST New Report Examines Role of Engineering Technology, Calls for Increased Awareness of Field of Study and Employment While workers in the engineering technology (ET) field play an important role in supporting U.S. technical infrastructure and the country's capacity for innovation, there is little awareness of ET as a field of study or category of employment in the U.S., says a new report from the National Academy of Engineering. There are numerous similarities between traditional engineering and engineering technology. Though, in comparison, if engineers are viewed as being responsible for designing the nation's technological systems, engineering technicians and technologists are those who help build and keep those systems running. In 2014, there were nearly 94,000 four-year engineering degrees, nearly 18,000 four-year ET degrees, and more than 34,000 two-year ET degrees awarded in the U.S. Read More Wed, 15 Feb 2017 11:00:00 EST With Stringent Oversight, Heritable Germline Editing Clinical Trials Could One Day Be Permitted for Serious Conditions; Non-Heritable Clinical Trials Should Be Limited to Treating or Preventing Disease or Disability at This Time Clinical trials for genome editing of the human germline &ndash; adding, removing, or replacing DNA base pairs in gametes or early embryos &ndash; could be permitted in the future, but only for serious conditions under stringent oversight, says a new report from the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Medicine. The report outlines several criteria that should be met before allowing germline editing clinical trials to go forward. Genome editing has already entered clinical trials for non-heritable applications, but should be allowed only for treating or preventing diseases or disabilities at this time. Read More Tue, 14 Feb 2017 11:00:00 EST NAE Elects 84 Members and 22 Foreign Members The National Academy of Engineering has elected 84 new members and 22 foreign members, announced NAE President C.D. (Dan) Mote Jr. today. This brings the total U.S. membership to 2,283 and the number of foreign members to 249.Election to the National Academy of Engineering is among the highest professional distinctions accorded to an engineer. A list of the newly elected members and foreign members is available, with their primary affiliations at the time of election and a brief statement of their principal engineering accomplishments. Wed, 08 Feb 2017 03:00:00 EST New Report Proposes Three New Steps in Selection Process for Dietary Guidelines of Americans Committee The Dietary Guidelines for Americans underpin all federal nutrition policies and programs and have been in use for the past 30 years. Every five years a federal advisory committee suggests revisions to the guidelines. A new National Academies report recommends three new steps in the selection process for the Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee, including employing a third party to review nominations for qualified candidates, selecting a provisional committee, and posting the provisional committee for public comment and reviewing biases and conflicts of interest on the committee. This is the first of two reports that reviews the processes used to develop the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Fri, 03 Feb 2017 11:00:00 EST Honoring Outstanding Achievement in Science Since 1886, the National Academy of Sciences has honored outstanding scientific achievement through its awards program. NAS will announce this month the 2017 winners of various awards. A schedule follows. Monday, Jan. 30: Public Welfare Medal Thursday, Jan. 26: Earth and Space Science Award Winners Wednesday, Jan. 25: Neuroscience, Psychology, and Criminology Award Winners Tuesday, Jan. 24: Physical Science and Engineering Award Winners Monday, Jan. 23: Biological, Medical, and Agricultural Sciences Award Winners Mon, 30 Jan 2017 11:00:00 EST Applying Science, Technology, and Innovation to Development Challenges The U.S. Agency for International Development should speed its transformation into a global leader and catalyst in applying science, technology, and innovation to the challenges facing developing countries, says a new National Academies report. In doing so, it should draw on resources from across U.S. government agencies, developing countries, the public and private research enterprise, research universities in the U.S. and abroad, and other development agencies. Among USAID's top priorities should be scaling up successful interventions, strengthening host countries' capacity to apply science and technology to their own development, and expanding investments in science, technology, and innovation that engage and empower women. Read More Fri, 27 Jan 2017 11:00:00 EST Nearly 100 Conclusions on the Health Effects of Marijuana and Cannabis-Derived Products Presented in New Report A new report from the National Academies offers one of the most comprehensive studies of recent research on the health impacts of cannabis and cannabis-derived products &ndash; such as marijuana and active chemical compounds known as cannabinoids &ndash; ranging from their therapeutic effects to their risks for causing certain cancers, diseases, mental health disorders, and injuries. The committee also proposed ways to expand and improve the quality of cannabis research efforts, enhance data collection efforts to support the advancement of research, and address the current barriers to cannabis research. Read more Thu, 12 Jan 2017 12:30:00 EST New Report Examines Challenges Faced by the Federal Statistical System A new report from the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine examines the challenges faced by the federal statistical system, discusses the opportunities and risks of using government and private sector data sources, and outlines steps needed to lay the foundation for a new paradigm that would combine diverse data sources in a secure manner to enhance the collection and use of federal statistics. Thu, 12 Jan 2017 10:00:00 EST Report Recommends New Framework for Estimating the Social Cost of Carbon Dioxide To estimate the social cost of carbon dioxide for use in regulatory impact analyses, the federal government should use a new framework that would strengthen the scientific basis, provide greater transparency, and improve characterization of the uncertainties of the estimates, says a new report by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The report also identifies a number of near- and longer-term improvements that should be made for calculating the social cost of carbon. Read More&nbsp; Wed, 11 Jan 2017 01:00:00 EST New Report Identifies Root Causes of Health Inequity in the U.S., Outlines Solutions for Communities to Advance Health Equity The burdens of poor health and the benefits of good health and well-being are inequitably distributed in the U.S. due to factors that range from poverty and inadequate housing to structural racism and discrimination, says a new report from the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. Community-driven interventions targeting these factors hold the greatest promise for promoting health equity -- the state in which everyone has the opportunity to attain full health potential and no one is disadvantaged from achieving this potential because of social position or any other socially defined circumstance. Read More&nbsp; Wed, 11 Jan 2017 11:00:00 EST Accounting for Social Risk Factors in Medicare Payment The National Academies released the fifth and final report in a series examining social risk factors that affect the health outcomes of Medicare beneficiaries and how to account for these factors in Medicare value-based payment programs. The report says that accounting for social risk factors in quality measurement and payment in combination with complementary approaches may achieve the policy goals of reducing disparities in access, quality, and outcomes, as well as quality improvement and efficient care delivery for all patients &ndash; thereby promoting health equity. Tue, 10 Jan 2017 11:00:00 EST New Report Finds Significant Improvements in Methods to Collect Data on Recreational Fishing A new report from the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine says the Marine Recreational Information Program &ndash; a national survey program &ndash; has made significant improvements in gathering information on recreational fishing through redesigned surveys, strengthening the quality of data. Although many of the major recommendations from a previous Academies report have been addressed, some challenges remain, such as incorporating technological advances for data collection and enhancing communication with anglers and some other stakeholders. Read More Tue, 10 Jan 2017 10:00:00 EST World's Largest Gathering of Transportation Professionals More than 13,000 people from about 70 countries -- including policymakers, administrators, practitioners, and researchers from government, industry, and academia -- will gather Jan. 8-12 for the Transportation Research Board 96th Annual Meeting. Transportation Secretary Anthony Foxx will be among the featured speakers. Fri, 06 Jan 2017 11:00:00 EST New Report Reviews Eight NASA Evidence Reports on Human Health Risks NASA asked the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to review more than 30 publicly available evidence reports on human health risks for long-duration and exploration space flight. A new letter report -- the fourth in the series of five -- examines eight NASA evidence reports on topics including astronauts' risk of developing cardiovascular disease from radiation exposure; cancer from radiation exposure; radiation syndromes from intense exposure to high doses of radiation over short time periods; central nervous system effects from radiation exposure; adverse cognitive or behavioral conditions and psychiatric disorders; and performance decrements and adverse health outcomes from sleep loss, circadian desynchronization, and work overload. The NASA evidence reports are available to download here. Fri, 06 Jan 2017 11:00:00 EST New Report Calls for Revisions to WIC Program A new congressionally mandated report from the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine proposes updated revisions to the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) to better align with the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, promote and support breast-feeding, and improve flexibility for cultural preferences. The committee that carried out the study and wrote the report recommended cost-neutral changes that include adding fish; increasing the amount of whole grains; and increasing vegetables and fruits as a trade-off for decreasing juice, milk, legumes, peanut butter, infant vegetables and fruits, and infant meats. It also recommended allowing women to receive the quantity of formula needed to support any level of breast-feeding. The proposed changes will save approximately $220 million programwide from 2018 to 2022. Read More Thu, 05 Jan 2017 11:00:00 EST New Report Calls for Use of Emerging Scientific Data to Better Assess Public Health Risks Recent scientific and technological advances have the potential to improve assessment of public health risks posed by chemicals, yet questions remain how best to integrate the findings from the new tools and methods into risk assessment. A new National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine report recommends approaches for using 21st century science to evaluate the many factors that lead to health risks and disease, laying the groundwork for a new direction in risk assessment that acknowledges the complexity of disease causation. Read More | Webinar on Friday, Jan. 6, beginning at 2 p.m. EST Thu, 05 Jan 2017 11:00:00 EST 2017 Bernard M. Gordon Prize for Innovation in Engineering and Technology Education Awarded to Dean of Northwestern University's McCormick School of Engineering The National Academy of Engineering announced today that the 2017 Bernard M. Gordon Prize for Innovation in Engineering and Technology Education will be awarded to Julio M. Ottino, dean of the Robert R. McCormick School of Engineering and Applied Science at Northwestern University, &quot;for an educational paradigm that merges analytical, rational left-brain skills with creative, expansive right-brain skills to develop engineering leaders.&quot; The $500,000 annual award recognizes new methods and concepts in education aimed at developing engineering leaders. The Gordon Prize ceremony will be held at Northwestern University this spring. Thu, 05 Jan 2017 11:00:00 EST Inventors of Optical Coherence Tomography Win 2017 Fritz J. and Dolores H. Russ Prize The National Academy of Engineering and Ohio University announced today that the 2017 Fritz J. and Dolores H. Russ Prize will be given to James G. Fujimoto, Adolf F. Fercher, Christoph K. Hitzenberger, David Huang, and Eric A. Swanson for the invention of optical coherence tomography (OCT). The $500,000 biennial prize, which recognizes a bioengineering achievement that significantly improves the human condition, cites OCT for &quot;leveraging creative engineering to invent imaging technology essential for preventing blindness and treating vascular and other diseases.&quot; The Russ Prize will be presented at a gala dinner event in Washington, D.C., on Feb. 21, 2017. Read More Wed, 04 Jan 2017 11:00:00 EST Report Calls for Improved Methods to Assess Earthquake-Caused Soil Liquefaction Effectively engineering infrastructure to protect life and to mitigate the economic, environmental, and social impacts of liquefaction requires the ability to accurately assess the likelihood of liquefaction and its consequences. A new report by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine evaluates existing field, laboratory, physical model, and analytical methods for assessing liquefaction and its consequences, and recommends how to account for and reduce the uncertainties associated with the use of these methods. Read More Wed, 21 Dec 2016 08:00:00 EST NAM Foreign Secretary Selected as AAAS President-Elect Margaret Hamburg, foreign secretary of the National Academy of Medicine, has been chosen to serve as the next president of AAAS. She will begin her three-year term as an officer and member of the Executive Committee of the AAAS Board of Directors at the conclusion of the 183rd AAAS Annual Meeting in Boston on Feb. 21, 2017. Read More Thu, 15 Dec 2016 11:00:00 EST National Academy of Medicine Launches 'Action Collaborative' to Promote Clinician Well-Being and Combat Burnout, Depression, and Suicide Among Health Care Workers In response to alarming evidence of high rates of depression and suicide among U.S. health care workers, the National Academy of Medicine is launching a wide-ranging &quot;action collaborative&quot; of multiple organizations to promote clinician well-being and resilience. To date, more than 20 professional and educational organizations have committed to the NAM-led initiative, which will identify priorities and collective efforts to advance evidence-based solutions and promote multidisciplinary approaches that will reverse the trends in clinician stress and ultimately improve patient care and outcomes. Read More Thu, 15 Dec 2016 11:00:00 EST New Report Calls for Forward-Looking Analysis and a Review of Restoration Goals for the Everglades To ensure the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan (CERP) is responsive to changing environmental conditions like climate change and sea-level rise, as well as to changes in water management, a new report by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine calls for a re-examination of the program's original restoration goals and recommends a forward-looking, systemwide analysis of Everglades restoration outcomes across a range of scenarios. Read More Thu, 15 Dec 2016 11:00:00 EST Lower Cost of LEDs Reduce Profitability for Manufacturing Landscape Although residential and commercial industries are widely adopting energy-efficient light emitting diodes (LEDs), the drop in LED prices is driving away manufacturers because of decreased profitability, dramatically dislocating and restructuring the solid-state lighting marketplace, says a new National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine report. Thu, 15 Dec 2016 11:00:00 EST National Academies' Gulf Research Program Awards $2.1 Million in Synthesis Grants The Gulf Research Program (GRP) of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine announced today the recipients of three synthesis grants, totaling over $2.1 million. The grants support projects that apply scientific synthesis to connect environmental, social, and/or health data to advance understanding of the short- and long-term impacts of offshore oil and gas operations on human communities in coastal regions adjacent to the U.S. outer continental shelf. The grants also advance study design, tools, models and technologies for assessing human exposure to environmental contaminants, including acute or chronic exposures related to oil spills and other sudden and large-scale environmental disasters, and related impacts on individuals and populations. Read More Thu, 15 Dec 2016 11:00:00 EST In Memorium: Stephen Fienberg, 1942-2016 National Academy of Sciences member Stephen E. Fienberg, a world-renowned statistics professor at Carnegie Mellon University in Pittsburgh, has died at the age of 74. Deeply involved in the work of the National Academies for more than 40 years, Fienberg served on 35 committees and panels. For the last eight years, he was co-chair of the Academies' Report Review Committee, which oversees the institution's peer review process. Read Fienberg obituary from Carnegie Mellon Wed, 14 Dec 2016 11:00:00 EST New Report Recommends Research Agenda for Effective Science Communication A new report from the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine highlights the complexity of communicating about science effectively, especially when dealing with contentious issues, and proposes a research agenda to help science communicators and researchers identify effective methods. The most widely held model of what audiences need from science communication &mdash; known as the &quot;deficit model,&quot; which focuses on simply conveying more information &mdash; is wrong, the report says. Read More Tue, 13 Dec 2016 11:00:00 EST NAS President Marcia McNutt to Receive 2017 DRI Nevada Medal National Academy of Sciences President Marcia McNutt has been selected as the 2017 Desert Research Institute Nevada Medalist. Established in 1988 to acknowledge outstanding achievement in the fields of science and engineering, the DRI Nevada Medal is the highest scientific honor in the state. McNutt will receive the award during events planned in Reno and Las Vegas in September 2017. Read More Wed, 30 Nov 2016 11:00:00 EST True Prevalence of Food Allergies Unknown Due to Misinterpretation of Symptoms and Lack of Simple Diagnostic Tests; New Report Outlines Steps to Address Public Health Concerns of Food Allergy Safety Although there is widespread perception among the public and medical professionals that food allergy prevalence is on the rise, no study in the U.S. has been conducted with sufficient sample size and in various populations to determine the true prevalence of food allergies, and most studies likely overestimate the proportion of the population with this condition, says a new report from the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. In addition, the public and health care providers frequently misinterpret a food allergy and its symptoms, cannot differentiate a food allergy from other immune and gastrointestinal diseases -- such as lactose intolerance and gluten sensitivity -- and don't know which management and prevention approaches are effective and best to use. Current evidence is insufficient to associate any of the following behaviors with prevention of food allergy, the report says: food allergen avoidance diets for pregnant or lactating women; prolonged allergen avoidance in infancy; vaginal delivery; breast-feeding; use of infant formulas containing partially or extensively hydrolyzed protein; and supplementation with specific nutrients -- for example, vitamin D -- in children or adults. Read More Wed, 30 Nov 2016 11:00:00 EST Gulf Research Program Awards $3 Million in Exploratory Grants The Gulf Research Program of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine announced today the recipients of nine exploratory grants, totaling almost $3 million. The grants are intended to jumpstart the development of novel approaches, technologies, or methods and/or the application of new expertise in one of two areas: (1) how to improve the use of scenario planning to advance safety culture and minimize risk in offshore oil and gas operations, and (2) how to inform coastal community planning and response to environmental change in regions with offshore oil and gas operations. Read More Thu, 17 Nov 2016 11:00:00 EST Examining the Utility of Achievement Levels for the 'Nation's Report Card' A new Academies report finds that while the National Assessment of Educational Progress' &quot;achievement levels&quot; &ndash; basic, proficient, and advanced &ndash; can be a useful tool for reporting reading and math performance, users of NAEP data need more guidance on the interpretation and use of achievement levels. Thu, 17 Nov 2016 11:00:00 EST National Academy of Sciences President Emeritus Ralph J. Cicerone Dies at 73 NAS President Emeritus Ralph J. Cicerone &ndash; a leader of science and world-renowned authority on atmospheric chemistry and climate change &ndash; died at his home in New Jersey today. He was 73. Cicerone served as the 21st president of the National Academy of Sciences from July 1, 2005 to June 30, 2016. Throughout his tenure, Cicerone was a steady voice for science in Washington, always maintaining a civilized and respectful dialogue with politicians and policymakers on some of the most challenging and controversial scientific issues of our time. At the same time, he remained a strong advocate for independent scientific advice &ndash; the hallmark of the Academy since its founding in 1863 &ndash; to inform government decision-making and public discourse.&nbsp;Read More Sat, 05 Nov 2016 11:00:00 EST Award Winners Honored at NAS Congratulations to the winners of the 2016 National Academies Communication Awards, who were honored during an award ceremony held last night at the National Academy of Sciences in Washington, D.C. These prestigious awards -- each of which includes a $20,000 prize -- recognize excellence in reporting and communicating science, engineering, and medicine to the general public. More Photos Thu, 27 Oct 2016 11:00:00 EST NAS President Emeritus Ralph J. Cicerone Named NAE Distinguished Honoree During its 2016 annual meeting, the National Academy of Engineering honored Ralph J. Cicerone, president emeritus of the National Academy of Sciences, with the title of NAE Distinguished Honoree. Cicerone is only the fifth recipient of this recognition. He is honored for his tenure at the NAS where he rendered great service to the engineering profession in the United States and to the NAE through his deep understanding and appreciation of the interplay of science and engineering and their importance to the nation's welfare. Read More Mon, 24 Oct 2016 11:00:00 EST Report Offers Road Map and Recommendations to Help U.S. Cities Become More Sustainable, Learn From Other Cities' Experiences A new report from the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine offers a road map and recommendations to help U.S. cities work toward sustainability, measurably improving their residents' economic, social, and environmental well-being. The report draws upon lessons learned from nine cities' efforts to improve sustainability &ndash; Los Angeles; New York City; Vancouver, B.C.; Philadelphia; Pittsburgh; Chattanooga, Tennessee; Cedar Rapids, Iowa; and Grand Rapids and Flint, Michigan. The cities were chosen to span a range of sizes, regions, histories, and economies. Read More Wed, 19 Oct 2016 11:00:00 EST NAM Elects 70 New Members, Nine International Members The National Academy of Medicine today announced the names of 70 new members and nine international members during its annual meeting. Election to the NAM is considered one of the highest honors in the fields of health and medicine and recognizes individuals who have demonstrated outstanding professional achievement and commitment to service. Annual Meeting Webcast | Agenda Mon, 17 Oct 2016 11:00:00 EST Winners of 2016 D.C. Public Health Case Challenge Announced The winners of the fourth annual D.C. Public Health Case Challenge were announced at this year's National Academy of Medicine annual meeting. The challenge aims to promote interdisciplinary, problem-based learning around a public health issue of importance to the local Washington, D.C. community. Mon, 17 Oct 2016 11:00:00 EST NAM Announce Recipients of Awards, Honors The National Academy of Medicine presented two prestigious awards at its annual meeting today. The Gustav O. Lienhard Award was given to David Cella, Ralph Seal Paffenbarger Professor and chair, department of medical social sciences, and director, Center for Patient Centered Outcomes, Institute for Public Health and Medicine at Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine. And the 2016 Rhoda and Bernard Sarnat International Prize in Mental Health was awarded to Steven Hyman, director of the Stanley Center for Psychiatric Research in Cambridge, Mass., and Robin Murray, a professor at King&rsquo;s College London, United Kingdom. The Academy also honored three NAM members for their outstanding service&nbsp;--&nbsp;Lynn R. Goldman, dean and professor of environmental occupation and health at the Milken Institute School of Public Health at the George Washington University; Donna E. Shalala, president of the Clinton Foundation (on leave from University of Miami, where she is trustee professor of political science and health policy); and Mary E. Woolley, president and CEO of Research!America --&nbsp;as well as announced three health professionals who were selected for the 2016 class of NAM Fellows.&nbsp; Lienhard News Release | Sarnat News Release | Outstanding Service News Release&nbsp;|&nbsp;Fellows News Release&nbsp; Mon, 17 Oct 2016 11:00:00 EST Accounting for Social Risk Factors in Medicare Payment A new Academies report provides guidance on data sources and collection strategies for measurable social risk factors that could be accounted for in Medicare value-based payment programs in the short and long term, such as low socio-economic position, residence in disadvantaged neighborhoods, or race and ethnicity. The committee that conducted the study and wrote the report identified three broad categories of data sources: 1) new and existing data collected by the Centers for Medicare &amp; Medicaid Services (CMS); 2) data from health care providers and health plans; and 3) alternative government data sources, i.e., national surveys that non-CMS federal agencies and state agencies oversee and maintain. Tue, 11 Oct 2016 11:00:00 EST NAS Member Shares 2016 Nobel in Economics The 2016 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences was awarded jointly to National Academy of Sciences member Oliver Hart and Bengt Holmstr&ouml;m &quot;for their contributions to contract theory.&quot; Mon, 10 Oct 2016 11:00:00 EST National Academy of Engineering Annual Meeting Begins NAE members will gather on Oct. 9-10 in Washington, D.C., to congratulate new members and welcome distinguished speakers who will discuss this year's annual meeting theme, Global Mega-Engineering Initiatives. Agenda | Learn More Fri, 07 Oct 2016 11:00:00 EST New Research Framework to Understand Cumulative Impacts of Human Activities on Marine Mammals Rising levels of noise in the ocean have been identified as a growing concern for the well-being of marine mammals, but other threats such as pollution, climate change, and prey depletion by fisheries may also harm marine mammals and influence their response to additional noise. Current knowledge and data are insufficient to determine what combination of factors cause the greatest concern, says a new report by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The report includes a newly developed conceptual framework model to help federal agencies and research communities explore the potential cumulative effects of human activities on marine mammals. Read More Fri, 07 Oct 2016 11:00:00 EST Gulf Research Program Announces Early-Career Research and Science Policy Fellowships The Gulf Research Program of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine announced today the recipients of its Early-Career Research Fellowships and Science Policy Fellowships for 2016. These competitive awards are among the suite of activities in the program&rsquo;s 30-year mission to enhance oil system safety and the protection of human health and the environment in the Gulf of Mexico and U.S. outer continental shelf regions. Fri, 07 Oct 2016 11:00:00 EST Key Science Questions for the Next Debate In advance of the upcoming presidential debate in St. Louis, a new op-ed from AAAS Chief Executive Officer Rush Holt and NAS President Marcia McNutt reiterates a recent call for the candidates to address a set of 20 major issues in science, engineering, health, and the environment, and a call to journalists, including debate moderators, to ask these questions of candidates so the public has access to the answers. Wed, 05 Oct 2016 11:00:00 EST NAS Member Shares 2016 Nobel in Chemistry The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2016 was awarded jointly to National Academy of Sciences member J. Fraser Stoddart, Jean-Pierre Sauvage, and Bernard L. Feringa &quot;for the design and synthesis of molecular machines.&quot; Wed, 05 Oct 2016 11:00:00 EST NAS Member Shares 2016 Nobel in Physics The Nobel Prize in Physics 2016 was divided, one-half awarded to National Academy of Sciences member David J. Thouless, the other half jointly to F. Duncan M. Haldane and J. Michael Kosterlitz &quot;for theoretical discoveries of topological phase transitions and topological phases of matter.&quot; Tue, 04 Oct 2016 11:00:00 EST